"The groundwork of all happiness is health." - Leigh Hunt

Dysthymic disorder and cyclothymic disorder

When you think that of mood disorders, the primary things that probably come to mind are depression and bipolar disorder. These are common, serious illnesses and the fundamental causes of disability. Depression and bipolar disorder may be emotionally crippling and make it difficult to live life to the fullest. Persistent depressive disorder, a more moderen diagnosis that mixes chronic major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder, is a condition during which an individual has been depressed for no less than two years.

Persistent depressive disorder is a less severe type of depression. Although less extreme, persistent depressive disorder (PDD) causes chronic or long-lasting mood swings of various severity. It is characterised by a depressive mood that lasts a lot of the day, over several days, for no less than two years. In children and adolescents, moods may be irritable for no less than a 12 months and indicate a persistent depressive disorder.

PDD can occur alone or along with other psychiatric or mood disorders, but not with mania or hypomania. As with depression, PDD is more common in women than men. Mood disorders within the family should not unusual. This mood disorder tends to look sooner than major depression, although it might probably occur at any time from childhood into later life.

Up to 4% of the overall population is affected by PDD. The cause is just not exactly clear. A mixture of things likely contribute to the event of this mood disorder. These aspects may include:

  • genetics
  • Dysfunction of the brain circuits involved in emotional processing
  • Chronic stress or medical illness
  • insulation
  • Poor coping strategies and problems adapting to life stress

These aspects can influence one another. For example, should you all the time see “the glass as half empty,” chances are you'll be increasing symptoms of depression. And a chronic mood disorder could make you more sensitive to emphasize, further increasing your risk of depression.

In addition to chronically low mood, common symptoms of this mood disorder include:

  • Feelings of hopelessness or helplessness
  • Sleep disorders or daytime tiredness
  • Loss of appetite or eating an excessive amount of
  • Poor concentration
  • Fatigue or low energy
  • Low self-esteem
  • Difficulty concentrating or making decisions

Diagnosis of PDD in adults requires no less than a two-year history of depressed mood for a lot of the day on most days and no less than two of the symptoms listed above. Although some symptoms may overlap, the likelihood of weight or sleep changes is lower with PDD than with depression. You might also are inclined to turn out to be more withdrawn and have stronger feelings of pessimism and inadequacy than when you're severely depressed.

Staying within the mood on a regular basis is just not a lifestyle. This is a reason to hunt treatment. Another reason is that PDD also can increase your risk of physical illnesses. Another reason for treatment? If left untreated, this mood disorder can turn into more severe depression. It might also increase your risk of attempting suicide.

AntidepressantsSome medications, resembling selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), or tricyclic antidepressants, are sometimes used to treat PDD. Since treatment may should be continued for an extended time frame, it will be important to contemplate which medications not only work well, but ideally even have few unwanted effects. You might have to try multiple medication to search out the one which works best. However, please note that it might take several weeks or longer to take effect. Successful treatment of chronic depression often takes longer than acute (non-chronic) depression.

Take your medications as directed by your doctor. If they cause unwanted effects or still don't work after several weeks, discuss this along with your doctor. Don't suddenly stop taking your medication.

Doctors consider that treating PDD with a mixture of antidepressants and psychotherapy is effective.

Specific varieties of Talk therapyB. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic psychotherapy or interpersonal therapy (IPT) are considered effective types of psychotherapy for treating PDD. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a structured, time-based treatment that involves recognizing and restructuring thoughts. It can show you how to change your distorted considering. IPT can be a time-limited, structured treatment. The focus is on coping with current problems and resolving interpersonal conflicts. Psychodynamic psychotherapy involves exploring unhealthy or unsatisfactory behavior patterns and motivations that chances are you'll not concentrate on and that may result in depression and negative expectations and life experiences.

Some studies also suggest that aerobic exercise may help with mood disorders. This is simplest when done 4 to 6 times per week. But some exercise is best than none in any respect. Other changes may also be helpful, resembling in search of social support and finding an interesting profession. Used in patients with major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern (formerly often called seasonal affective disorder).)Bright light therapy might also help some individuals with PDD.

Bipolar disorder causes severe, unusual changes in mood and energy that affect your ability to perform normal tasks at home, school, or work. Cyclothymic disorder is usually considered a light type of bipolar disorder.

Cyclothymic disorder involves mild periods of depression (hypomania) in addition to short, fleeting periods of depression that don't last as long (lower than two weeks each) as in a severe depressive episode. The hypomanias in cyclothymic disorder are much like those in bipolar II disorder and don't turn into full-blown mania. For example, chances are you'll feel an exaggerated sense of productivity or power, but don't lose touch with reality. In fact, some people even find the “highs” of cyclothymic disorder nice. They are often not as disabling as bipolar disorder.

Up to 1% of the US population – equal numbers of men and ladies – suffer from cyclothymia. The cause is unknown, but genetics may play a job; Cyclothymia is more common in individuals with relatives who've bipolar disorder. Symptoms normally appear in adolescence or young maturity. However, because symptoms are mild, it is usually difficult to inform when cyclothymia begins.

The diagnosis of cyclothymic disorder can come from simply describing symptoms resembling these:

  • Episodes that include temporary, recurring periods of depression and, at other times, episodes of hypomania; This pattern of episodes must persist for no less than 2 years.
  • Symptoms persist and lead to lower than two consecutive symptom-free months.

The episodes of cyclothymic disorder are sometimes somewhat unpredictable. Either depression or hypomania can last for days or even weeks, punctuated by a month or two of normal mood. Or chances are you'll not have “normal” periods in between. In some cases, cyclothymic disorder develops into full-blown bipolar illness.

Some individuals with mild symptoms of cyclothymia can lead successful and fulfilling lives. Others find their relationships affected by depression, impulsive actions, and powerful emotions. For these people, short-term medications can provide relief. However, cyclothymic disorder may not respond as well to medication as bipolar disorder. A mixture of mood stabilizers and psychotherapy is simplest. Mood stabilizers include antiepileptic drugs resembling carbamazepine (Tegretol), devalproex (Depakote), lithium or lamotrigine (Lamictal).